Friday, October 28, 2016

Decofti leson (18th lesson)

Unlike Esperanto, Russian, German, and other languages, the accusative is NOT used as an indicator of direction.  In other words, "I am going into the house" (which in the other languages, "house" would appear in the accusative/objective case), the Govoro equivalent is "mi idar A en sa hus"  "I am going to in the house".

Also, in contrast to Esperanto, Govoro does not allow for prepositions to be replaced by the accusative:

Mi alasar isto despin dens.  I will stay (during) 15 days.
Li ider a Pariz.  He went to Paris.
Tuto kostar po ce dolars.  That costs (at the rate of) 3 dollars.
bafoga  to obey

1.  Kutom de dens ti alaser su sa gor?  Mi alaser tute isto dec dens.
2.  Kutom de dens ti alasor en nui hus?  Mi axar, ke mi posor alasa nu maj cem po ce dens.
3.  Ci ti idor ojdene a London?  Nu, herik, mi nu idor a London, oti mi nu avar jonen por tuto.
4.  Ci ti alader nur pin sedens xe tui tadik?  Nu, mi alader xe li file mai langi jonen.
5.  Kutom kostar atutini libro?  Atutin kostar nur duoni dolaren.
6.  Kutom de jon ti kerar alasa en nui torpo?  Mi nu kerar alasa maj cem par sedens.
7.  Kute ti eser?  Mi eser en London.
8.  A kute ti idar?  Mi idar a Pariz.
9.  A kute kurar atutini xat?  Li kurar a sa daskun.
10.  Ci ti toxe idar a tute?  Anu, mo devar ida a tute ju vida mui amiken, kutin deskar sa infansen.
11.  Kutel ti deler tui roboten?  Mi kien cele nu deler, oti mi dever idar a Berlin kaj alaser tute dum du langi sedensen.
12.  Kutam ti kien delor?  Mi delor kien kutam mi avor maj de jon.
13.  Kutel ti exar, Herino?  Mi exer jankeli ejdene, Heriko, sed ajdene mi axar, ke mi posor ida a sa jad.
14.  Ci esar istine, ke sa josik de tuti herik idar tutel arge a sa torpo?  Anu, esar istine, oti li kurer isto sa tuti jon.

Monday, October 24, 2016

Leson defsep (17) / Defsepi leson

Ordinal numbers ("first", "155th" etc.) are created simply by adding -i to the numeral or variant thereof (third = cevi; eighth = ofti):  unui first;  sat pidec pini 155th.

FRACTIONS are formed by adding -on:  a half, duon;  a quarter, paron;  9/10, nef decons.

MULTIPLES are formed by adding -ol:  double, duoli;  times 4, paroli;

DISTRIBUTIVES add -ope:  by twos, duope.

Any of the above can be made into adjectives, adverbs or nouns by the usual derivational rule for creating adjectives, adverbs and nouns:  devduo, dozen;  unue,  firstly, in the first place; duone,  by halves.

Unui,  first                    
Ceve,   thirdly
Dui,   second
Duo  duet
Cedec sisi 36th.
Sa satolo,   the hundred-fold
Ceon,  a third.
Po dec sentos a xuti,  at the rate of 10 cents for each one (note the prepoition used in Govor)
Decon,  a tenth
Duoni mel,  a half an apple (lit; "a half apple"), can also be expressed as duon de mel.
Duoli,  double
Parole,  quadruply
Unue,  Firstly
Telosi,  last
Celi,  whole, entire
Devduo de ajs,  a dozen eggs.
basuka  to visit
jokala  to invite

1.  Kuti esar sa unui en tui daskunel?  Mui amik, Pawlo, esar caste sa unui.
2.  Kutomi ti esar?  Mi esar sa decunui, sed nu sa telosi.
3.  Ci ti aidor peva ku ni ajsere?   Anu, sed unue mo* nadar serkoma.
4.  Kuten ti delor ojdene?  Ojdene mi unue matinkoma, due mi idor a sa jad, ceve mi basukor vien kaj pare, mi jokalor vien ju denkoma ku ligi miks.
5.  Ci ti ageber boni melen?  Mi nu ageber celi melen, sed nur duonen.
6.  Kutom da mels ti avar?  Mi avar par melsen kaj ce parons de mel.
7.  Ci ti beber celi pojelen de caj?  Nu, mi ec nu bebe paronen de mui caj.
8.  Kutom esar sa decol de pin?  Ki esar pidec.
9.  Kutom esar satole ce parons?  Ki esar sedec pin.
10.  Kuti eser en tui kip ejdene miaze?  Ni aver tute decon de afabli heinsen, xutis amikins de mui velin.
11.  Ci vi cele deler vui roboten?  Nu, Herik, mi kien nur duone deler.
12.  Ci ti poser koma tuti kuken kaj tuti melsen? Nu, sa kuk eser duone komebi, sed sa mels eser cele nukomebis.
13.  Kuti govrer sa ple alange ejsere?  Mi axar, ke tui patik govrer ple alange; xuti ali heriks govrer cevole maj lange cem li.
14.  Kutom ti gebor a tuti infaniks ju zui robotad?  Mi gebor a xuti po dec sentos.

* "nada" means "to have to" but is an ergative verb, meaning the "logical subject"(the person on whom the obligation falls)  is in the ACCUSATIVE case and not the nominative:  mO nadar: I have to....;  vO nadar, you all have to.....

Sunday, October 16, 2016

Leson defses (16) / Defsesi leson

CARDINAL NUMBERS are invariable:

1,  unu,  2  du,  3  ce (combining form:  cev-),  4  par, pin,  6  sis,  sep,  of,  9  nef,  10 dec                         

The numerals between 13 and 17 and also 19  have modifications to the "10" component:  11  decunu,   12 devdu, 13 defce,  14  despar,  15 despin,  16 defsis,   17 defsep,  18  decof,  19 dexnef.

The numerals 40, 50, etc, again, have modifications for the tens place number:    dudec, cedec, padecpidecsidec, sedec, odecnedec.  

The numerals 400 -  900 have the same modification in the hundreds place as 40 - 90 have in the 10s place:  200  dusat,  300  cesat,    400  pasat,    500   pisat,   600  sisat,   700  sesat,   800  osat,   900  nesat

1000  mil

Numerals between the multiples (below 999) are created by simple juxtaposition of the elements:  56   pidec sis,   437  pasat cedec sep,  7261  sep mil dusat sidec unu.  As can be seen by this past example, "mil" is usually written separately from the number that modifies it, even though, according to the rules, it should be attached to the numeral preceding it.

"million" is "milion"

And finally, "-ole" meaning "multiplied by"causes no modifications since it starts with -o-:  duole par esar of.   2 x 4 is 8.

Kutom da jels?  How many years?
Kutom esar ceole par?  How much are 3 times 4?

Kutomi esar sa cas?  What time is it?  (Which"th" is the hour?)
Esar sa pari cas.     It's four o'clock ((it) is the fourth hour).
Esar sa pari cas kaj despin.  It's 4:15.

1.  Kutom da infans avar sa jodisto?   Li avar par infans.
2.  Kutom da infans idar a nui daskun?  Sat cedec unu idar a nui daskun.
3.  Kutom da infaniks daskar sa daskajo?  Li daskar pidec ce infansen.
4.  Ci esar maj file da infanins?  Anu, ni avar sedec of infanins en sa daskun.
5.  Kutom da infanins esar en xuti daskunel?  Esar padec en unu daskunel kaj cedec of en sa ali.
6.  Kutom esar despin kaj cedec du?  Ki esar padec sep.
7.  Kutom esar sefoje dudec?  Ki esar sat padec.
8.  Kutom esar devdufoje nef?  Ki esar sat of.
9.  Kutom esar safoje pidec ce? Ki esar pin mil cesat.
10. Kutom de dinajos avar tui tadik?  Li avar ce dinajiksen, du dinajinsen kaj unu kipisto, kuto esar sis dinajosen.
11.  Kutom de jad(o)s vi vidar?  Mi nu vidar filisen; mi axar, ke mi vidar dudec jadsen.
12.  Kutom de coveks esor xe vi ojdene?  Ni avor ojdene xe ni cedec herinsen kaj udec of heriksen.