Monday, December 28, 2015

Leson devdu (12)

Yes, I'm a bad conlanger!  Today I should have been posting lesson 16, not lesson 12.  I can't promise I'll catch up;  I may just wait to do lesson 16 till next Monday if I get done with lesson 15 this week.

The suffixes -evl and -eb
The suffix -evl attached to transitive verbs creates adjectives denoting possibility of having something done to an object.  The resulting adjective describes an object of a verb:  Vida - to see, videbli - visible (able to be seen).  Jeda - to believe, jedebli - credible (able to be believed);
The related suffix -eb attached to intransitive verbs denotes "subject to (verbing)":  lada - to die, ladebi - mortal (subject to dying), aladebi - immortal (not subject to dying)

tute there
atute here
pagot weather
vinca to desire, wish
Tuto esar komebli  that is edible.
Atuto esar nubebebli  this is undrinkable.
Santi Bok, santi ixiri, santi aladebi, pamilu nien Holy God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immotal, have mercy on us.

1.  Kute ti esar?  Mi esar atute en mui domat.
2.  Kute esar tui velin?  Li esar en sa sidun.
3.  Kuti esar tuti ku li?  Muis tads govrar tute ku li.
4.  Ci ti puler tutoen, kutien mi vincar?  Anu, herik, atute esar tui tasels kaj tute tui potirels.
5.  Ci ti nu komer tui kuken?  Nu, mi nu poser koma kien, oti ki esar nu komebli.
6.  Kuten ti nemer atute su sa tablo?  Mi nemer tutoen.
7.  Ci ti nu poser vida la gorelen?  Anu, mi poser vida zien; sa pagot eser sor xeni kaj zi eser videbli.
8.  Ci ti nu poser beba atuti cajen?  Nu, mi nu beber tui cajen;  ki esar bebebli, sed sor aboni.
9.  Kuten ti geber a tutis infans?  Mi geber a zi tuten, kuten mi puler en sa jad ejdene matin.
10.  Kutam ti aider a mui velik?  Mi aider a li denserede kaj denkomer ku lui ikorod.
11.  Ci ti serkomor ku ni, kutam ti aidor a sa jad?  Mi jedar, ke mi nu posor





Tuesday, December 22, 2015

Leson decunu (11)

The relative pronoun
The relative pronoun is the word, kutu, who, which, that.  When used as the relative pronoun, it will always take -s in the plural and -en in the accusative, which are optional when it is used as a demostrative.

Those men who come, Tutu coveks kutus aidar.

The word kuti is a pronoun when it is alone, but it corresponds to our adjectives what or which when it is before a noun.  Kutu govrar?  Who is speaking?  Kutu(s) tavlos esar tutam?  What/which tables are there?

The demonstrative 
Tutu, that, is an adjective if before a noun and a pronoun if alone:  tutu tavlo, that table; tutu nu aidar, that one does not come.  Tuto is always the pronoun for things:  Mi kerar tutoen,  I want that.  To denote "this, these" etc. prefix a-:  atutu this one.

Kutuen ti vidar?  Whom do you see?
Kutu(en) kuken ti nemar?  Which cake do you take?
Mi gebor tutu(en) kuken kaj nemor atutuen.  I will give that cake and take this one.
Tutus, kutus alasar lange.  Those who remain long.

For the remaining lessons in this course, optional plural and accusative endings will NOT be indicated.

1.  Kutu esar tutu covek?  tutu covek esar sa her, kutu ni vider ejdene su sa unlic.
2.  Ci ti nemor tutu(en) potiren?  Nu, mi nemor atutuen, oti li esar maj jandi.
3.  Kutu bone rabotar?  Tutu, kutu nu file govrar.
4.  Kutu coveks komer mui kuken?  Tutus, kutus aider en sa matin.
5.  Kutu stasosen ti kerar ava?  Mi kerar ava tutustasosen, kutus esar ejdene su tui tavlo.
6.  Ci ti vider sa potiren kutuen li nemer?  Nu, sed mi vider tutuen, kutuen ti nemer.
7.  Ci ti vider kutu kuken li komer?  Anu, li komer sa kuken, kutuen ti puler ejdene.
8.  Kutu ti tasosen li pulor?  Li pulor tutu ajandi tasosen, kutisen lui tadin apular.
9.  Ci a tutu caj esar maj bona cem tutu ?  Anu, ki esar file maj bona, oti mi puler a tutuen en sa jad, isto ti puler kinien en sa torpo.
10.  Ci ti jedar, ke sa caj, kutu kutuen ici pular en sa jad, esar maj bona cem tutu ici pular en sa torpo?  Mi nu eskazor tutuen, sed en sa torpo sa caj alasar en sa butiks maj lange cem en sa jad, kaj ki esar amaj novi.
11.  Kutu(en) husen ci kerar pula?  Mi kerar pula vxeni huselen, kini esar engus ta gorel.
12.  Kutu ear en tui domat?  Tute esar sa du infanels a kutusmi geber kuken ejdene.
13.  Ci ti juxe vider a tuten covken?  Anu, mi jedar ke li esar kini, kutien mi vider en sa kafun.
14.  Xe kutu tavloti sidor?  Mi sidor xe a tutu tavloengus mui kuzin.

Saturday, December 19, 2015

Leson dec (10)

The suffix -un
Among its uses is to denote the place devoted to an activity, or usually associated with an act or item:  pula - to sell; pulun - store.  daska - to teach; daskun - school, daskunel - classroom; kaf - coffee, kafun - Cafe.

The suffix -stan
This is the suffix used on an adjective of nationality to denote the country in which the nationality is a majority, usoni - of the USA ("American"), usonistan - the USA;  dojci - german, dojcistan - Germany; or else the "virtual" "land" of said nationality when speaking in general terms or when groups are clustered together:  romani - Rom (gypsy), romanistan - the Rom world;  Esperanto >Esperanti, Esperantistan "Esperantujo".  Ortodosistan, the Orthodox world.

adaska - to learn
afeta - to shave (s.o. or s.t.) ; so afeta - to shave (oneself)
alawti - quiet
apula - to buy
ate - until, up to the time of
aw - or
baka - to bake
bakisto baker
bakun - bakery
bombon - piece of candy
butik - shop
cevi - three
cidax - sugar
daska - to teach
daskun - school
dela - to do, to make
den - day
  denseredo - noon
  nixeredo - midnight
denkom - lunch
domisi - public
dui - second
enose - while
filis - many
furanses - French (language)
furanso - a frenchman
Furansistan - France
imbe - around
ida - to go
inte - after
iskaza - to say, tell
jeda - to believe
jod - bread
   jodal - sandwich
joxad - square (It. piazza, Ger. Plaatz)
jut - spice
juxe - already
kaf - coffee
kafun - cafe
kif - hump, lump, bump
kor - heart
kupi - white
ligi - some
luba - to love
matin - morning
novi - new
omos(e) - however
pamoga - to help
petina - to comb
petinil - a comb
pipar - pepper
pota - to be able to
pula - to sell
pulun - store
razni - diverse
recel - goods, stuff
robota - to work
rukel - back (body part)
sal - salt
sed - but
seredo - middle
tijel - affair, matter, a thing
torpo - village
toxe - also
ulic - street
  ulicel - lane, alley
unui - first
vin - wine
xokolat - chocolate

MUI TORPO

Mui torpo esar je ajandi.   Ki nu esar su gor, sed ki esar engus gorel maj hoxi cem sa ple hoxi hus en sa torpo.  En mui torpo esar unu jandi joxad kaj ligi ulicos kaj ulicels.  Su sa joxad esar ligi butiks kaj sa domisi daskun.
   Sa unui butik esar pulun de fili, razni tijels.  Sa pulisto esar ajuni herin ku axeni kif su sa rukel.  Li pular jutsen, cidaxen, salen, piparen, bombonsen, bumaken, recelen, kaj fili ali tijelsen.  Sa infans nu fili lubar lien, oti li esar je ajuni kaj axeni; omose li avar je boni koren.  Sa dui butik esar sa petinun.  Sa petinisto esar juni franso, je afabli kaj fesi.  Enose li afetar kaj petinar sa coveksen, li govrr kaj xutar ku zi.  Sa cevi butik esar sa bakun.  Sa bakisto esar jam ajuni kaj li esar maj alawti cem sa petinisto, sed li rabotar maj bone.  Li delar je boni jodsen kaj jodelsen, kutusen li pular en sa butik.  Engus lui pulun esar kafun, kute ici potar beba cajen, kafen, xokolaten, piven aw vinen.  En sa kafun esar du domats; unu ku fili ajandi tablos, kaj sa ali ku unu sola jandi tablo kaj fili sidils imbe li.
   Maj adaleki (far) su sa joxad, esar sa daskun de mui torpo.  Sa infans idar en sa matin a sa daskun, kaj zi rabotar tute ate denseredo.  Du daskajs daskar sa infaniksen, kaj ce daskajins daskar sa infaninsen.  En mui torpo sa infanins esar maj filis cem sa infaniks.  Unu daskajin eskazer a mi ke zi rabotar maj boni cem sa infaniks, sed fili coveks nu kerar jeda tuten.  Xe sa denseredo sa infans idar denkoma, kaj inte tuto zi pamogar sa patsen  aw cezar su sa joxad.  Ligi infanins apular bombonsen xe sa ajuni, kifi pulistin, sed lui bombons esar je ajunis kaj nu je bonis.
   Ejdene unu aws ta daskajs aider toxe a lui butik por apula bumaken, sed li(ni) nu aver xeni, kupi bumaken, kaj li(ci) nu eser zufri.  Mi nu jedar, ke li potar apula maj boni bumaken en sa torpo, oti sa ajuni herin esar sa soli, kutu pular bumaken tute.

A.  QUESTIONS TO ANSWER WITH "YES"
1.  Ci mui torpo esar ajandi?  Anu, ki esar ajandi.
2.  Ci sa gors esar hoxis?  Anu, zi esar hoxis.
3.  Ci mui torpo esar engus gorel?
4.  Ci sa gorel esar maj hoxi cem sa husos en sa torpo?
5.  Ci sa butiks esar su sa joxad?
6.  Ci esar bakun en mui torpo?
7.  Ci esar toxe petineun?
8.  Ci ici potar pula bombonssen en mui torpo?
9.  Ci esar fili infanins en sa torpo?
10.  Ci sa daskaj daskar sa infansen?

B.  QUESTIONS TO ANSWER WITH "NO"
1.  Ci mui torpo esar jandi?  Nu, ki esar ajandi.
2.  Ci ki esar su gor?
3.  Ci sa husos esar maj hoxis cem sa gorel?
4.  Ci esar fili joxads en sa torpo?
5.  Ci ti idar a sa daskun de mui torpo?
6.  Ci mi avar kuzen tute?
7.  Ci sa pulistin esar juni?
8.  Ci li esar aboni?
9.  Ci sa petinisto esar afesi?
10.  Ci sa bakisto esar lawti?
11.  Ci sa infaniks esar maj filis cem sa infanins en sa daskun?
12.  Ci sa infans idar a sa kafun?

C.  QUESTIONS TO ANSWER WITH THE NAME OF A PERSON (WHO, WHOM)
1.  Kutu esar xe ti?  Sa bakisto esar xe mi.
2.  Kutuen daskar sa daskajins?  Zi daskar sa infaninsen.
3.  Kutu daskar sa infaniksen?
4.  Kutu pular cidaxen?
5.  Kutu apular bombonsen?
6.  Kutu petinar sa coveksen?
7.  Kutu delar joden?
8.  A Kutu ti idar?
9.  Xe Kutu ti denkomar?
10. Kutuen sa infans nu lubar?
11.  Kutuen sa infaniksen pamogar?
12.  A Kutu li(ni) apular bumaken?

D.  QUESTIONS TO ANSWER WITH THE NAME OF A THING (WHAT)
1.  Kut(o) esar tuto?
2.  Kut(o)en delar sa bakisto?  Li delar boni joden.
3.  Kut(o) esar su sa joxad de sa torpo?
4.  Kuten pular sa ajuni herin?
5.  Kuten li(ni) avar?
6.  Kuten apular sa infanins?
7.  Kuten delar sa petinisto?
8.  Su kut esar sa potirs?
9.  Kuten komar sa infanins?
10.  Kut esar anovi xe sa pulistin?
11.  Kuten kerer pula sa daskaj?
12.  Kuten ici bebar en sa kafun?

E.  QUESTIONS TO ANSWER WITH THE NAME OF A PLACE (WHERE)
1.  Kute esar sa gorel?  Li esar engus ta torpo.
2.  Kute esar sa butiks
3.  kute esar sa husos?
4.  Kute ti ladar?
5.  Kute ladar sa petinisto?
6.  Kute ti pular tui joden?
7.  Kute tui infans adaskar?
8.  Kute ici potar apula bumaken?
9.  Kute ici potar beba cajen.
10.  Kute sa infanins apular bombonsen?
11.  Kute ladar sa daskajins?
12.  Kute cezar sa infans?

F.  QUESTIONS TO ANSWER WITH A COMPLEMENT OF TIME (WHEN)
1.  Kutam ti aider a nui torpo?  Ejdene mi aider a li.
2.  Kutam ti esar en tui hus?  Mi esar tutam en sa matin.
3.  Kutam sa petinisto xutar?  Li xutar, enose li afetar sa coveksen.
4.  Kutam ti cezer su sa joxad?  Mi cezar tutam, kutam mi eser juni.
5.  Kutam ti apuler tui jod?
6.  Kutam sa infaniks idar a sa daskun?
7.  Kutam sa infans idar denkoma?
8.  Kutam zi cezar su sa jodax?
9.  Kutam zi adaskar?
10.  Kutam sa pulistin esar zufri?
11.  Kutam sa petinisto esar fesi?


  

Thursday, December 17, 2015

Leson nef (9)

Yay!

The direct object
The direct object of nouns, adjectives and pronouns (and some correlatives) will take UNstressed -en; replacing the -i on adjectives and the -o on nouns and correlatives ending in -o and attached to nouns ending in a consonant, the subject pronouns, and the correlative series that end in -u, -i:
bonen, govren, denen, mien, kuten.

To place emphasis on the object pronoun, use the pre-verb pronoun in addition to the "full" form pronoun after the verb.  To place emphasis on an object noun, use the pre-verb pronoun in addition to  the object noun.
The plural -s- is placed between the root and the accusative ending (inserting -o- before the -s- if necessary to prevent phonotactic obstacles).  Those who claim that Govoro cannot be a "real" language because of this are referred to Turkish and (post-Soviet) Georgian.  bonisen, govrosen, densen.

The correlatives ending in -i and -u (kuti, kutu, etc) take the full suffix -en to form their accusative.

The common German/Slavic device of using the accusative to denote movement to a place is NOT used in Govoro.  We say "A kute ti idar?"  Where are you going (to)?  "Mi sidizar sa libren a su sa pol"  I set the book onto the floor.

Sa kan morder sa visiken.  The dog bit the man.  Because of the accusative ending, this sentence can be arranged as Morder sa kan sa visiken, sa visiken morder sa kan, sa visiken sa kan morder, etc. without confusing the subject and object.
Ni vider sa xiroki tablosen (accent on the o):  We saw the wide tables.
Li faspotar mien  He mocks me.

It will be noted that an attributive adjective occurring directly before the noun it modifies rarely takes the plural accusative ending(s) and somewhat less rarely the plural nominative ending.  The only time these endings are used on adjectives in the pre-noun position are to avoid any ambiguity.

Direct object form of personal pronouns
The personal pronouns, when used as direct objects, have two forms, one with -en attached, as above (mien, tien, lien, nien, vien, zien) and another, used mainly in high style speech, but also by some speakers (mostly Romance speakers, in imitation of their native languages):  mo, to, lo, no, vo, zo; me, you, him/her/it, us, you, them, placed directly in front of the conjugated verb.  The writer/creator of Govoro (who, incidentally, is a native English speaker) prefers this latter form, but don't let that sway you; if you wish to use the "full" form (mien, tien, etc) do so.  Neither form is incorrect.

In sentences with an infinitive compliment taking the direct object pronoun (I want to serve you), the "full" form is used overwhelmingly, except in the very highest style.  Mi kerar dina tien will be the only form seen in ordinary use. The student will see Mi to kerar dina  or even more rarely Mi kerar dinato in the Bible or in "legalese."  This is NOT to be imitated.

Ni lubar lien/Ni lo lubar  We love him/her/it.
Sa pex komar mufen.  The fish eats a fly.
Mi beber boni/bonen cajen  I drank good tea
Kuten ti delor?   What will you do?
Ci ti avar cisti(sen) tasosen?  Do you have clean cups?

1.  Ci te ravar sa chaj?  Anu, ki me ravar sor file.
2.  Kuten ti komor?  Mi komor pexen.
3.  Ci tui pex esar boni?  Anu, ki esar boni kaj mi esar zufri koma kien.
4.  Kuten ti bebor, Her?  Mi bebor cajen.
5.  Ci nu te ravar kafen?  Nu, Her, caj me ravar maj cem kaf.
6.  Kuti kerar beba piven (beer)?  Mi jedar, ke mui patik bebor piven.
7.  Kuten ti avar en sa potir?  En mui potir mi avar piven.
8.  Kuten ti avar en sa piv?  En sa piv mi avar mufen.
9.  De kute aidar atuti muf?  Ki kurer su sa tablo kaj aider a mui potir.
10. Ci tuis potirs esar puris, Herin?  Anu, Her, mi xutam avar puri potirsen.
11.  Ci esar istini, ke lini avar xutam puri potirsen?  Nu, mui amik, mi nu jedar atuten.
12.  Herins, ci tui potirs esar toxe apuris?  Ni nu avar potirsen.
13.  Ci istine ti n avar potirsen?   Nu, ni avar tasosen, oti ni bebar cajen.
14.  Ci sa caj, kutin ti bebar, esar bona?  Anu, sed, ejdene, ni beber maj boni cajen.
15.  Kutam ti eser en atuti jad?  Ni eser atute ejdene.
16.  Ci sa mufs komar pexosen?  Nu, mui amik, sed sa mufsen komar pexos.
17.  Ci sa pexos komar coveksen?   Nu ofte, se sa pexosen komar ofte coveks.
18.  Kuten ti delor ojden?  Ojdene, mi igror ku mui kuzos.
19.  Ci ti lubar tui kuzosen?  Anu, mi lubar zien (or mi zo lubar), sed mi lubar noxe mui boni amiksen.
20.  Ci ti lubar tui tadiken?  Anu, mi lubar lien (or mi lo lubar) file, kaj toxe li mo lubar mien.
21.  Ci atuti herin alubar tui josinen?  Anu,  mi redar atuten, oti li esar sor fabli ku lini.
22.  Kutien ti lubar?  Mi lubar fili coveksen, kutis nu mo lubar mien.





Leson of (8)

Superlative of adjectives and adverbs
The superlative is formed by je....aws,  most.....(out) of; aje......aws, least......(out) of

Sa je boni aws ni   The best (one) of/among us
Sa je xiroki tavlo   The widest table.
Sa aje xiroki     The least wide, narrowest.


Amaj embire cem li  Less skillfully than s/he
Sa je cudelindi aws zi.  The most wonderful of them
Sa je cudeli zat de sa jel.  The most wonderful time of the year
Sa aje medi jas  the least sweet voice
ixiri  strong, mighty; peva  to sing

1.  Ci tui velin esar amaj ixiri cem ti?  Nu, Her, li esar file maj ixiri.
2.  Kuti pevaar sa je bone aws tui velins?  Mui je juni velin pevar sa je bone.
3.  Ci lui jas esar maj ixiri cem tui jas?  Nu, sed ki esar file maj medi.
4.  Ci sa jas de mui kzin te ravar?  Anu, lui jas esar xire xeni.
5.  Ci tui amik pevar ofte?  Nu, nu le ravar peva, oti lui jas esar xire amedi.
6.  Ci ajuni coveks pevar bone?  Nu, zi aofte pevar bone, oti zui jas esar axiri.
7.  Ci tui josin esar embiri por rabota?  Nu file, sed li esar maj embiri por igra.
8.  Kuti esar tuti cudeli covek?  Li esar sa je ixiri covek aus mui jad.
9.  Ci tui anovi dinajo nu esar maj ixiri cem li?  Nu, oti mui dinajo esar file maj ajuni.
10.  Ci sa infans de tui jad pavar xene?   Mi jedar, ke zi xeni pavar, sed nu maj cem sa infans de alis jads.
11.  Kute esar sa je hoxi gors? Sa je hoxi gors esar en Azio.
12.  Ci sa gors en Ameriko esar hoxis?   Anu, zi esar maj hoxis cem tutis en Ewropo.
13.  Ci tutis infans esar tuis?  Nu, muis infans esar maj juni cem tutis.


Leson sef (7)

The comparative of adjectives and adverbs
The comparative is formed with maj....cem:

Maj boni cem mi - better than I
Maj vite cem xat - Faster than a cat
Amaj jandi cem tuto - Less big that that

Sa + possessive adjective
In order to create the "mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs" series, place the definite article "sa" in front of the possessive:  mui - my, sa mui - mine; tui - your, sa tui - yours, etc.

Vocabulary building: the suffix -el
The suffix -el is placed on a word to denote diminution of degree, not mere smallness:
hus - house, husel - cottage;  xeni - beautiful, xeneli - pretty.

Vocabulary building:  switching endings
A verb or adjective can be made into a noun by simply changing the -a or -i to -o:  govra - to speak, govro - speech; rabota - to work, raboto - work;  xeni - beautiful, xeno - beauty; boni - good, bono - (the) good (that men do, e.g.)

New vocabulary
Viti  quick, fast, rapid.  Vite  quickly, rapidly
Li rabotar maj bone cem lini  He works better than she,
Gors esar maj hoxi cem gorels.  Mountains are taller than hills.
Jokimi a mi  Near to me
Ajokimi de li  Far from him/her

1.  Ci tui hus esar jokimi al sa mui?  Nu, Her, ki nu esar jokimi al sa tui,  oti ki esar engus ta gorel.
2.  Ci sa gorel esar sor ajokimi?  Ane, Her, ki esar maj ajokimi cem sa hus de mui tadik.
3.  Ci ti kurar vite?  Nu, Her, mi jedar, ke mui velik kurar maj vite ol mi.
4.  Ci tui velik esar hoxi?  Nu, Her, mi esar maj hoxi cem li.
5.  Ci ti eser en sa domat, kune mui kuz aider?  Nu, mi eser xutam su sa gorel.
6.  Ci te ravar pedida su gors?  Anu, me maj ravar pedida su gors cem en sa jad.
7.  Ci tui nizin bone rabotar?  Anu, Her, sed li nu rabotar maj bone cem sa alis infanins.
8.  Kuto esar maj boni ce, raboto?  Sa infans jedar, ke igro esar maj bona cem raboto.
9.  Kute esar sa jad, kute ti alader ku tui velik?  Ki esar sor ajokimi.
10. Kutam tui velik aider a tui jad?  Li aider a ki, kutam li kerer rabota ku mi.
11. Ci sa nims te ravar?   Anu, kaj sa kans noxe maj me ravar cem sa alis nims.
12. Kuti igrar ku ti maj ofte cem mui josik?  Mui kuzik igrar ku mi maj ofte, oti li aladar en mui hus.
13.  De kute aidar mui amik?  Li aidar de ajokimi jadel su sa gors.
14.  Ci li xutam alader su sa gors?  Anu, oti luis pats kaj luis vels aladar tute.
15.  Ci ti eser en tui jadel?  Anu, mi aladar en ki, kutam mi eser sor juni.

Tuesday, December 15, 2015

Leson ses (6)

Ajden(e)  Today
Ojdene ki kajor  Tomorrow it will happen.
Ici jedor ke ki esar istini.  One will believe it is true.
zufal - accident
jad  city
husel  cottage
xeneli  pretty
Sa infanik pader de sa husok.  The boy fell from the window.
Kutam  When.  Tutam  then.

1.  Kut kajer ajdene?  Ajdene xeneli infan pader de husok.
2.  Kute ki kajer?  Ki kajer engus mui hus.
3.  Ci ti eser tute, kutam ki kajer?  Nu, mi nu eser tute.
4.  Ci li pader de jandi hus?  Nu, sa infanik pader de ajandi hus.
5.  Ci ki esar sa husel de Herin A.?  Anu, ki esar lui hus.
6.  Ci sa infan alader xe li?  Anu, li alader xe Herin A.
7.  Kutu li eser?  Li eser lui nizik.
8.  Ci li esar sa soli nizik?  Nu, esar du alis niziks kaj unu nizin.
9.  Kutam kajer sa zufal?  Ki kajer ejdene.
10. Ci sa pats de sa infan eser tute?  Nu, zi ne eser tute.
11.  Kute zi aladar?  Zi aladar en aluti jad.
12.  Kutam zi aidor?  Zi aidor ojdene.
13.  Ci ti nu jedar, ke zi aidor ajdene?  Nu, mi nu jedar.
14.  Ci sa tadin eser en sa hus, kutam ki kajer?  Anu, li eser tutam en sa hus.
15.  Kute cezer sa infanik?  Li cezer xe sa husok.
16.  Ci ti jedar, ke sa tadin eser toxe xe la husok?  Nu, mi jedar, ke li eser tutam en ali domat.
17.  Ci ti govrer ku sa herin?  Nu, sed mui velik aider a sa herin.
18.  Ci ti kerar govra ku sa herin ajdene?  Nu, mi jedar, ke mi adior a sa herin ojdene ku mui patin.
19.  Ci sa infan esar sa infanik, kutu cezer ejdene ku mui josiks?  Nu, Her, mi jedar, ke li esar ali infan.

Leson pin (5)

Gender suffixes
These are -ik and -in.  They are used on the words for family members (pat, vel, tad, niz, etc) and the word "her" (title of polite address; equal to Mr., Ms., Mrs., or Miss)  to denote male and female respectively:
pat - parent; patik - father, patin - mother.
niz - child of sibling; nizik - nephew, nizin - niece.
her - (title of polite address); herik - Mr. sir, gentleman, herin - Ms. Miss, Mrs. ma'am, lady.

The -in suffix is also used on "vis" human being, in order to denote the female counterpart, woman:  visik, visin.

These are the only instances where the gender suffixes are mandatory.  Any other use of the suffixes to denote gender are completely at the discretion of the speaker.  To ensure the complete accuracy of the third person, -ci, and -ni are attached:  lici - he, lini - she.

a - to
afabli - kind
aida - to come
alawti - tranquil, quiet
ali - other
amik - friend
amuxi - not married
arodeni - foreign
bo- - in-law
bopatik - father-in-law
cuta - to joke
cuto - a joke
dina - to serve
dinajo - servant (dinajik/dinajin for differentiating, though this is not usually needed)
fesi - gay (old meaning), festive
file - much
filis - many
her - Title of polite address
herik - Sir, Mr., gentleman
herin - Ma'am, Mrs. Miss, lady
hus - house
ici - one (pronoun)
iheri - betrothed
iherik - finace
iherin - fiancee
infan - child
infanik - boy
infanin - girl
jama - to cry out
xire - very
jeni - full
jokuz - relative
jos - child, offspring
josik - son
josin - daughter
kac - cage
kan - dog
kera - to wish, to want
ki - it
koma - to eat
komax - food
komo - meal
kuz - cousin
kuzik - male cousin
kuzin - female cousin
mudi - tired
mux - spouse
muxik - husband
muxin - wife
nep - grandchild
nepik - grandson
nepin - granddaughter
nim - animal
niz - child of sibling
nizik - nephew
nizin - niece
novi - new (not old)
noxe - still (as in:  it's still raining)
ofte - often
ospit - guest
oti - because, for
pri - about
rava - to please; lo ravar - he likes....., mo ravar - I like.....
ser - evening
sola - alone
toxe - also
xutam - always
usel - bird
vesin - neighbor
vis - person
visos - people
zoga - to care
zufri - content

Sa ikorod

     Sa ikorod de mui tadik esar xire jandi.  Lui du josiks kaj lui ce josins esar nui kuzos.  Zi esar noxe junis infans, kaj ni ofte cezar ku zi.  En sa hus de mui tadik aladar noxe file alutus visos.  Lui du velins aladar xe li, kaj sa velik de lui muxin, lui bovelik, toxe esar lui ospit.  Mui tadik esar xire afabli vis, kaj lo ravar jeni kaj fesi hus.  Lo ravar cutaku jokuzos kaj amiks.  Komo xe li esar xutam xire fesi.  Mui tadin esar alawti kaj nu govrar file, sed bone zogar pri sa hus.   Esar xe mui tadik du dinains kaj unu dinaik, kutus esar anovi amiks de sa ikorod.  Ni xire ofte esar xe nui tadik kaj cezar ku lui infans.  Zui kan esar xire jandi kaj zui xatos xire filis.  Sa nims toxe xire ravar  mui tadiken, kaj en lui xeni kip esar kac ku  arodenis usels.  En sa sidun toxe esar uselkac su ajandi tavlo.  Ejdene sa xat sider engus ta kac kaj sa usels file jamer.
     Ejden eser xe mui tadik serkomo ku nui ikorod.  Mui pats kaj mui vels eser tute, kaj ni eser xire fesis.   Mui tadik kaj mui patik file cuter, sa amuxins file govrer kaj sa infans file komer.  Xe mui tadik sa sidils esar xire jandi kaj su zi ki bone sidar.  Tuto xire ravar  mui juni veliken, kuten ravar bone sida.
     Mui patekik toxe eser xe sa tavlo ku ni, sed mui patekin eser mudi kaj nu kerer aida.  Mui juni kuzin eser azufri, oti li sider engus mui velik, kaj lici nu eser afabli ku lini.  Lini nu kerer kura ku ni en sa kip, kaj lini cezer sole ku sa xatin.  Inte sa serkomo aider du juni heriks, kutus esar boni amiks de mui tadin.  Zi esar iheros , kaj xire no ravar , oti zi eser xire fesis kaj afablis ku sa infans kaj toxe ku sa ajuni visos.  Sa iherin aider a mui afesi juni kuzin kaj cezer ku li.  Xigre sa iherin kaj la infanin eser xire boni amiks.


A.  QUESTIONS TO ANSWER WITH "YES"
 1.  Ci sa ikorod de tui tadik esar jandi?  Anu, lui ikorod esar jandi.
 2.  Ci tui tadik esar afabli?  Anu, li esar afabli.
 3.  Ci tui tadin esar alawti?   Anu, li esar alawti.
 4.  Ci tui velik esar fesi?  Anu, li esar fesi.
 5.  Ci tui kuzin esar juni?  Anu, li esar juni.
 6.  Ci  kura ravar sa infansen?  Anu, zo ravar kura.
 7.  Ci to ravar igra ku infans?  Anu, mo ravar igra ku infans.
 8.  Ci sa hus de tui tadik esar jeni?  Anu, sa hus de mui tadik esar jeni.
 9.  Ci tui patik cutar ofte?  Anu, li cutar xire ofte.
10.  Ci tui patin aidar ofte a tui tadin?  Anu, mui patin aidar ofte a mui tadin.
11.  Ci to ravar serkoma ku tuis kuzos?  Anu, mo ravar serkoma ku muis kuzos.
12.  Ci sa sidils esar bonis xe tui tadik?  Anu, zi esar bonis xe mui tadik.

B.  QUESTIONS TO ANSWER WITH "NO"
 1.  Ci tui velik eser afabli ku tui kuzin?  Nu, lici nu eser afabli kun lini.
 2.  Ci tui tadin govrar file?
 3.  Ci tui patin eser mudi?
 4.  Ci tui tadik esar ofte afesi?
 5.  Ci kans cezar ku xats?
 6.  Ci sa juni ihers eser fablis?
 7.  Ci zi te araver?
 8.  Ci tui hus esar engus ta hus de tui tadik?
 9.  Ci sa dinajs de sa tadik esar novis?
10.  Ci  sa infans aravar koma?
11.  Ci sa infaniks esar ofte mudis?
12.  Ci sa infanins afte govrar?

C.  QUESTIONS TO ANSWER WITH THE NAME OF A PERSON (WHO?)
 1.  Kutu aladar xe ti?  Mui pats aldar xe mi.
 2.  Kutu serkomer ku ti?
 3.  Kutu esar tui ospit?
 4.  Kutu aladar xe tui tadik?
 5.  Kutu cezer ku sa xats?
 6.  Kutu eser azufri?
 7.  Kutu eser fabli?
 8.  Kutu cezer ku tui kuzin?
 9.  Kutu kurer tra sa kip?
10.  Kutu suter ku tui tadik?
11.  Kutu nu govrar file?
12.  Kutu zogar pri sa hus?
13.  A Kutu aider sa iherin?
14.  Pri Kutu ti govrer?
15.  Xe Kutu ti aladar?
16.  Kutuen ravar sa ihers?
17.  Ku Kutu ti govrer ejdene?

D.  QUESTIONS TO ANSWER WITH THE NAME OF A THING (WHAT)
 1.  Kut esar su sa tavlo?  Lampo esar tute.
 2.  Kut esar en tui domat?
 3.  Kut esar en sa kac?
 4.  Kuten ravar a tui tadik?
 5.  Kut esar en tui hus?
 6.  Su kut esar sa lampos.
 7.  En kut esar sa usels?
 8.  Pri kuto ti govrer ku mui patik?
 9.  Tra kuto ti kurer ejdene?
10.  Ku kut cezar tui juni velik?
11.  Pri kuto ti esar zufri?

E.  QUESTIONS TO ANSWER WITH THE NAME OF A PLACE (WHERE?)
 1.  Kute esar tui domat?  Mui domat esar en sa hus.
 2.  Kute esar sa kip?  Sa kip esar engus ta hus.
 3.  Kute ti cezer ejdene?
 4.  Kute ti serkomer?
 5.  Kute esar sa jandi tavlos?
 6.  Kute esar sa usels?
 7.  Kute esar sa uselkac?
 8.  Kute esar ti patekin?
 9.  Kute komar sa kan?
10.  Kute aladar tui amik?
11.  Kute tui kuzin cezer sole?
12.  Kute ni sidar?





Friday, November 27, 2015

Leson par (4)

The infinitive of verbs.  The infinitive expressess a state or an action without reference to persons or time.  It can be subject, object, or predicate of a verb, yet it can have a direct object.  It is modified by adverbs.  In Govro, the infinitive ends in "-a".  Govra - to speak;  beba - to drink;

Ni nu kerar apamoga vien (or:  apamogavo).  We don't wish to hinder you.
Ci vi kerar lange ajaxa?  Do you wish to answer at length?
Ava kanen esar ava amiken.  To have a dog is to have a friend.

The present tense ends in -ar: mi govrar - I speak.
The past tense ends in -er;  mi govrer - I spoke
The future tense ends in -or: li govror - He will speak
The conditional ends in -ir:  ni govrir - we would speak
The purpose mode/imperative ends in -u: Govru!  Speak!;  Ni govru. - Let's speak.  Mi kerar, ke li govru - I wish that he  would speak.


1.  The present tense is used for the "timeless" sense: mi govrar ispane/ispanen.  I speak Spanish.  This is also the form usually used to denote action that is ongoing at the time of speaking.  If particular emphasis is placed on the fact that the action of the verb is going at the time of speaking,  one can use the present of esa (to be) with the present participle (see #2 below) or the imperfective suffix (see #5 below)

2.  The past participles of a verb end in -enti (active) and -eti (passive):  govra - to speak; govreti - spoken.  govrenti - (having) spoken, as in Sa govrenti covek aidar.  The person who spoke is coming.
The present participles end in -anti (active) and -ati (passive).  Govranti - speaking.  Govrati - being spoken.
Future participles exist in Govro with the meaning of "about to X": govronti; "about to be X'd" govroti.

3.  The so-called "perfect tenses" can be formed in two ways.  The first way, which is used most often with transitive verbs and is more conversational, uses the auxiliary verb "ava" with the past participle.  Mi avar videti - I have seen.  Mi aver kometi - I had eaten.  Ti avor imeti - you will have had.  Ni avir dumeti - We would have thought.

4.  The second method, the only method used with intransitive verbs, is to insert the perfective ending -ek- between the root and the tense ending. No auxiliary verb is used.  Mi videkar - I have seen.  Mi eseker - I had been.    Ti imekor - you will have had.  Ni dumekir - We would have thought.  This form is almost never used on transitive verbs in any but the most formal speech (oratory) or in formulaic phrases:  Kristo alsiveker!  Istine alsiveker!  Christ has risen!  Indeed, He has risen!  However, there are speakers who use this form on all verbs in conversation, both informal and formal.  In practice, the perfect tenses are not in usual use in conversation, the "regular" tenses with adverbs such as "jam" already, and "osne" up till now, being used instead:  Mi osne eser, I have been.  Mi jam komer, kutam li enider.  I had (already) eaten, when he came in.


5.  The suffix -ad can be added between the root and the suffixes -ar, -er, -or, and -u to create an imperfective aspect.  This is primarily used with the past tense to express an "imperfective" aspect, much like the Spanish imperfect, Russian imperfective past, or the Greek continuous past tense.  Without the -ad- suffix, the past is equivalent to the Greek aorist; denoting the idea of completion of the action or else simple reporting of the action happening in the past, as in the Spanish preterit.
Used with the present, this suffix denotes the progressive tense.  The progressive sense can also be given to the verb with the future suffix.  Technically, the -ad- should be added in the infinitive to denote action that is meant as continuous or repetitive (as in Russian or Greek) but only some speakers will do this.  It is never wrong to put in the infix for this continuous/repeated meaning.


Again, a conjugated verb (in a form ending in -ar, -er, -ir, or -or) with no subject pronoun is to be interpreted as a kind of "middle voice", i.e. where, in English we use a nebulous "they":  Kutel to zovar?  What is your name? (literally:  How do they call you?)  Mo zovar ______. My name is (literally, "they call me")  ______.   This is usually to be found only in set phrases.

Lini aladar xe sa patekik.  She lives with the grandfather.
Lui patik esar juni.  Her father is young.
Lui pats eser junis.  Her parents were young.
Ajuni patekin.  An old grandmother.
Ajunis pateks. Old grandparents.
Anu, ni kurer tra sa sidun.  Yes, we ran thru the parlor.
Kuti sidar su atuti sidil?  Who is sitting on this chair?
Ejdene zi pedider.  Yesterday, they walked.

1.  Kuti aladar xe ti?  Xe ni aladar mui tadik ku mui tadin.
2.  Kute esar tui patik kaj tui patin?  Mui pats esar xe mui velin, en luin hus.
3.  Ci mui vels igrar en tui sidun?  Nu, her, tui velik kurar en sa kip kaj tui du velins nu esar xe mi.
4.  Ci tui patks esar ajunis?  Anu, zi esar ajunis.
5.  Kuti sidar en sa sidun?  Mui patin esar atute ku juni herin kaj du ajuni hers.
6.  Ci ti igrer ejdene ku tui vels?  Anu, mi kurer tra sa kip ku mui juni velik kaj igrer en sa sidun ku mui ce velins.
7.  Ci tui tads igrar ku xats?  Anu, en zui hus esar ce xats.
8.  Ci esar xats en tui hus?  Anu, esar du xats, kaj zi kurar tra sa domats, pedidar su sa tavlos
kaj sa sidils.
9.  Ci esar lampos su tui tavlos?  Nu, herin, mui lampos nu esar en sa domats, kute kurar sa xats.
10.  Kuti alader xe tui velik?  Xe mui velik alader mui tads kaj sa her, kuti eser ku ti ejdene.
11.  Ci atuti her esar en mui domat?  Nu, li sidar en sa domat, kuti esar engus ta sidun.
12.  Kuto esar atute?  Atute esar unu tavlo kaj du sidils, kutis esar abonis.
13.  Kuti aladar en atuti jandi hus?  Atute aladar sa hers, kutis eser ku ni ejdene.
14.  Ci tui tadin aladar xe ti?  Nu, lin aladar xe mui patekin ku sa du ajuni herins, kutis sider engus ti en sa sidun.
15.  Kuti sider su sa sidil engus sa tui?  Atute sider juni her, kuti aladar ku mui velik xe nui patekik.
16.  Ci tui velik sidar engus ti xe sa tablo?  Nu, xe sa tavlo mui velik sidar engus mui juni velin.






Sunday, November 22, 2015

Leson ce (3)

Plural
The plural is formed for nouns and ajectives by adding -s (-os for those nouns ending in -s, -c, -x, or -z):  Sa xenis xats.  The beautiful cats.
If the adjective is directly before the noun it modifies, the ending CAN be left off:  Sa xeni xats.  The beautiful cats.  (this is perhaps preferable since -s x- can be difficult to pronounce).
But:  Sa tavlos esar bonis.

Sa xeni domat - the beautiful room
Sa xeni(s) domats - the beautiful rooms
Esar boni lampo - there is a good lamp
ajandi(s) tavlos - small tables
Kuto?  What?
atuto - this
su/isu - on (usually "su" but "isu" when following a word ending in "s, "z", or "x")

1 - unu;  2 - du;  3 - ce.

1.  Kute esar tui domat?  Mui domat esar en sa hus de mui tadik.
2.  Ci sa domat de tui velik esar atute?  Ane, sa du domats esar atute.
3.  Kute esar tuis fratins?  Du fratins esar en mui hus kaj unu igrar ku sa xats de mui tadin.
4.  Kute esar sa ce hers?  Zi esar en sa xenis domats de mui jandi hus.
5.  Kuto esar su sa tavlo?  Su sa tavloesar ce lampos.
6.  Ci zi esar bonis lampos?  Unu esar boni lampo kaj du esar aboni lampos.
7.  Ci tui lampo esar jandi?  Anu, her, mui lampo esar jandi.
8.  Ci sa lampo esar su ti tavlo?  Nu, her, sa lampo esar su sa jandi tavloen tui domat.
9.  Ci tuis domats esar en sa hus de tui tadik?  Nu, her, mis domats esar en sa hus de mui velik.
10.  Kute esar sa xats?  Unu esar atute su tui tavlokaj du esar en mui domat.
11.  Ci sa xats esar su sa tavloku mui lampo?  Nu, mi velik, sa xats nu esar atute, kute esar lampos.
12.  Kuto esar en tui domat?  En mui domat esar du ajandis tavlo.
13.  Ci atuto esar tui kip?  Nu, mui kip nu esar atute; atuto esar sa kip de mui velik kaj sa hus de mui velin.
14.  Ci atuto esar sa hus de tui tadik?  Nu, her, atuto esar mui hus; lui hus esar engus tui kip.
15.  Kuto esar atuto, her?  Atute esar jandi tavlo.
16.  Ci tui velik igrar en sa hus?  Nu, li nu igrar atute, li esar en sa kip ku mui xats.






Friday, November 20, 2015

Leson du (2)

Grammar

Adjectives always end in -i:  boni - good; xeni - beautiful;  Sa jandi xat - The big cat.


Adverbs modify adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs.  Most Govro adverbs have the ending -e and are derived from the same roots as may adjectives and some other words.  (The root of a word is the part which tells its essential meaning and receives the grammatical ending to make it a word.)

Examples of such derived adverbs are ixire - strongly, "with strength"; bone - well; amike - in a friendly way; abone - badly.

Govro has also a number of primary adverbs which have various endings.  Many of these have counterparts (probably quite old) in European languages basic to Govro.  Examples are Ejden(e) - yesterday.  ajden(e) - today, nu - no, not; anu - yes;  nun - now.

Subject pronouns and possessive adjectives



The following are the personal subject pronouns with their meanings.

mi - I
ti - you (singular)
li - he, she, it
ni - we
vi - you (plural)
zi - they
ici - one
ki - it


Myself, yourself, etc. add -mi to the pronoun.  Mi - I,  mimi - myself.
Si is the reflexive pronoun for the third person and means himself, herself, itself, themselves. 
Li govrar a si - He speaks to himself.  Zi eser lubeti de si - they were loved by themselves.

If one is speaking to one person, one MUST use "ti."  There is no nuance of intimacy as in other languages.  "Vi" conversly has no connotation of deference or politeness; it is simply the plural you and cannot be used to one person.

Sentences with an object pronoun but no subject pronoun, can be interpreted as a quasi-passive or middle voice:  Kutel to zovar?  What is your name? (lit: "How does one call you?")  Mo zovar ____.  My name is ____.  (lit: "one calls me _____"). This is mostly restricted to so-called "stock phrases".  Note, these are NOT idioms.  They do make sense translated literally.  They are just particular to Govro.  As with the above, a speaker can use the literal translation:  Kuto esar tui nam?  What is your name?  Mui nam esar ________.  My name is _______.


Possessive adjectives (stress is on the "u")

mui - my, mine, of mine
tui - your, yours, of yours
lui - his, her, its; his, hers, its; of his, of hers, of its
nui - our, ours, of ours
vui - your, yours, of yours
zui - their, theirs, of theirs
kui - its
icui - one's

Sui - his own, her own, its own, their own, is used with a complement belonging to the subject of the sentence/clause.  Mui patik pedidar ku sui amik kaj lui josik.  My father walks with his (own) friend and his (the friend's) son.

Ci tui hus esar jandi?  Is your house large?
Sa her kaj sa herin.  The gentleman and the lady.
Zi cezar en mui kip.  They are playing in my garden.
Sa xat de sa tadik  The uncle's cat (lit: the cat of the uncle)
Mi nu esar engus lui hus.  I am not near his house.

1.  Ci tui kip esar jandi?  Anu, mui kip esar jandi.
2.  Kute esar sa hus de tui velik?  Sa hus de mui velik esar engus mui kip.
3.  Ci tui velik esar ku ti?  Nu, li esar ku mui velin.
4.  Ci tui tadik kaj tui tadin esar atute?  Nu zi nu esar atute.
5.  Kute zi esar?  Zi esar en tui hus.
6.  Kute esar tui kip?  Mui kip esar engus tui hus.
7.  Ci ti cezar ku sa xat de tui tadik?  Nu, mi nu cezar ku lui xat, mi cezar ku mui xat.
8.  Kuti esar tui velin?  Mui velin esar ku mui tadik en tui kip.
9.  Ci tui velik esar ku sa tadin?  Nu, li esar ku sa her kaj sa herin en mui hus.
10.  Kute esar tui hus?  Mui hus esar en sa jandi kip de mui tadik.
11.  Kute esar sa kip de tui tadik?  Lui kip esar engus ta jandi hus de tui velik.
12.  Ci li esar tui velik?  Anu, li esar mui velik kaj sa her esar mui tadik.
13.  Kute cezar tui velik?   Mui velik cezar atute en mui kip.
14.  Ci li cezar ku ti?  Nu, li nu cezar ku mi; li cezar ku mui tadin.
15.  Kute esar tui xat?  Mui xat esar ku sa xatin de mui tadik.
16.  Kute esar sa her?  Li esar ku mui velik en sa kip de mui tadik.
17.  Kite ti cezar ku tui xatin?  Mi cezar en mui jandi kip.
18.  Ci tui xatin esar jandi?  Nu, mui xatin nu esar jandi.
19.  Ci ti nu cezar ku tui xat?  Anu, mi cezar ku mui jandi xat.
20.  Ci tui tadik kaj tui velik esar atute?  Nu, her, zi nu esar atute, zi esar en mui kip.
21.  Kute esar tui tadin kaj sa her?  Li esar en tui hus.
22.  Kute esar tui velik?  Li sar ku zi en sa jandi hus engus tui kip.
23.  Kute esar sa her?  Li esar en sa kip, kute mui velin cezar ku lui xat.
24.  Ci sa kip esar engus ta hus, kute esar tui tadik?  Nu, lui kip esar engus mui hus.


Leson unu (1)

Kajxo a xutus kaj bonaido!  (KYE-show ah SHOE-toose kye bone-ah-EE-doh) Hello to all, and welcome!


Govro is a new language project, designed specifically to address certain problems of other constructed, so-called "international languages" a few of which are:
1.      The "clinical regularity" of most other projects.
2.      The preponderence of Romance root words in the basic vocabulary seen in other languages.
3.      Unnecessarily difficult phonotactics (overly complex consonant clusters, basically)
4.      Slavish imitation of many languages using plural you for "polite" discourse and singular you for "familiar" or else English and Esperanto for using one word for both singular and plural
5.      Alleged sexism.

One intended use of Govro is as the official or bridge language for the European Union.  Not that that august body's government will ever approve such a proposal (it poo-poo's Esperanto, after all), but a language that will give a not-so-Romance option to Europe's non-Romance-speaking population who (rightly) berate Esperanto for being "A romance language with a germano-slavic accent".

Govro is unapologetically Indo-European in character and vocabulary (in other words, a so-called "Euroclone" in that it strongly resembles  "Standard Average European" in nature), that is, most of its features are found in one or more Indo-European languages, mainly Romance, Germanic, or Slavic,  although there are elements from other Indo-European languages (e.g. the verb aspects are more like the Greek system than the Slavic system) as well as non-Indo-European languages, and a priori elements that have been incorporated into it. 

For the purposes of this blog, I will be shamelessly imitating the format of Edmond Privat's "Esperanto in 50 Lessons".  Esperantists who read this blog will also note that I have shamelessly borrowed a few of Dr. Zamenhof's very good ideas e.g.  the correlative words (although I did make some tweaks for the Govro version) and his participle system, although in Govro, participles are ONLY adjectival or adverbial (none of the -anto, -into, or -onto complications, or worse yet, the "-intus" monstrosity).



The vowels of Govro are the usual 5 vowel set common to many languages: a, e, i, o, u.   These are given the usual pronunciation found in Spanish, Italian, Swahili, Hebrew, etc.  Of particular note, the "e" and "o" can be pronounced either close or open.  The two pronunciations are mere allophones of the one phoneme. 

The consonants are as follows:

B, D, F, K, L, M, N, P, T, V, W, and Z are basically as in English beet, dill, fennel, kale, lens, mango, nut, pepper, tomato, vanilla, wow (both times; see below), and zucchini.

C as the CH in church
G as in go
H silent at the end of a word, as English "h" or German "ch" in "ach" and "ich" otherwise.
J as in German "ja", see below.  Before "i", it usually gets pronounced somewhere between English "zh" and "j".
R is trilled either with the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge or the back of the tongue against the uvula (or more precisely, the uvula is vibrated against the back of the tongue).
S as in see
X as the "sh" in "shore".  

"J" is used immediately after the vowels "a" and "o" to create the sound combinations that in other languages are termed "diphthongs", just a fancy word for two vowels, one strong and one weak, pronounced as one syllable. "aj" is pronounced as the English word "eye" and "oj" is pronounced as the "oy" in "boy."
"J" before a vowel is equivalent to the English "Y"; "ja" sounds like the "-ia" (with the proper "a" sound) in "Alleluia", etc.

"W" is used after "a" for the diphthong found in "ouch" and before "a", "e", and "i" as in the English words, water, west and week.

Voiced consonants at the end of words MAY  be pronounced as their unvoiced counterparts.

It will be seen on perusal of the vocabulary that consonant clusters are restricted to two consonants within words and also at the beginning when the second consonant is one of the semivowels, W or J.  The only cluster allowed on the end of a word comes from the plural suffix, -s,  being attached to a noun ending in a consonant.

Finally, stress in the base form (the form found in dictionaries) of words of more than one syllable is on the vowel before the last consonant of the word.  
In words beginning with a consonant followed by vowels only, the stress is on the second to last vowel: liu = LEE-oo.  Lui = LOO-ee.  
Stress will NOT shift to the final vowel when adding the accusative -en or the plural -s.  When adding BOTH suffixes (i.e. in plural accusative nouns and adjectives), the stress DOES shift to the vowel before the -s (-o in nouns: govrOsen; and -i in adjectives: abonIsen) In all other cases, the stress will shift to the final pre-consonant vowel



Grammar overview
Words of more than one syllable are "grammar coded" to an extent.  Verb infinitives end in -a, adjectives end in -i, and nouns end in a consonant or -o.  Adverbs end in either -e or else a consonant.

Nouns
Base nouns (those nouns not derived from another part of speech) in Govro end in a consonant as in den, day; infan, child; covek, person; or in an -o  after a consonant cluster as in tavlo, table.  

Nouns derive from other parts of speech by changing the ending vowel of the verb to -o and dropping the -i of the adjective (adding an -o if this results in a consonant cluster at the end of the word). Hence:  Govra - to speak; govro - speech, language.  Boni - good; bon - the good.  An -o CAN be added to a noun for euphony.  

There is no grammatical gender in Govro.  Even the third person subject pronoun is gender neutral, although should the need arise, a speaker can differentiate between "he" and "she" (usually "lici" for "he" and "lini" for "she").


There is only one article in Govro:  sa (turns to 'ta" after a word ending in an "s") - the.  This does not change for number or case.  The change in the article from s- to t- will be observed any time two S's come together during morphological processes, unless, of course, this creates a cluster of more than two consonants (in the same word), in which case the second "s" simply drops out.


"Ci"
The particle "ci" is used to create yes/no questions from statements by simply placing it before the sentence. 
It is also used to create "tag questions": Ti esar ispano, ci nu?  You are a spaniard, aren't you?
Ti nu govrar dojces, ci?  You don't speak german, right?

Vocabulary  (Note that in the first 4 lessons of each 5-lesson group, only the new words in the sentences in bold print are to be memorized as active vocabulary.  Of course, the student can memorize the new words in the grammar explanations if s/he wishes, but it is not required; don't worry though; they'll be introduced as active vocabulary eventually.  In the 5th lesson of each 5-lesson group, all new words given are to be memorized.)

Kute esar sa velik?  Where is the brother?
En sa hus ku sa velin.   In the house with the sister.
Ci li esar atute?  Is he there?
Ci ti esar?    Are you?
Ci mi esar?   Am I?
Anu   Yes
Nu      No.

1.  Kute esar sa velik?  Li esar en sa hus.
2.  Kute esar sa velin?  Sa velin esar en sa hus.
3.  Kute esar sa hus?  Sa hus esar atute.
4.  Ci sa hus esar kine?  Anu, sa hus esar atute.
5.  Ci sa velik esar en sa hus?  Anu, sa velik esar en sa hus.
6.  Ci li esar atute?  Anu, li esar atute.
7.  Ci li esar ku sa velin?  Anu, sa velik esar ku sa velin en sa hus.
8.  Ci sa velik esar ku ti?  Nu, li esar ku sa velin.
9.  Ci li esar atute?  Nu, li esar en sa hus.
10. Ci sa velin esar en sa hus?  Anu, sa velin esar en sa hus ku mi.
11. Ci ti esar ku mi?  Nu, mi esar ku sa velik.
12. Ci mi esar ku sa velin?  Nu, ti esar ku mi.
13. Kute ti esar?  Mi esar atute ku li.
14.  Ci sa velin esar ku sa velik?  Anu, sa velin esar ku li.
15. Kute ti esar?  Mi esar atute ku li.
16. Kute esar sa velin?  Sa velin esar atute, kute sa velik esar.
17. Kute ti esar?  Mi esar kine ku sa velik.
18. Kute li esar?  Li esar en sa hus, kute mi esar.
19. Kute esar sa velik?  Sa velik esar atute, kute ti esar.
20.  Ci sa velin esar ku li?  Anu, kute esar sa velik, kine esar sa velin.