Friday, November 27, 2015

Leson par (4)

The infinitive of verbs.  The infinitive expressess a state or an action without reference to persons or time.  It can be subject, object, or predicate of a verb, yet it can have a direct object.  It is modified by adverbs.  In Govro, the infinitive ends in "-a".  Govra - to speak;  beba - to drink;

Ni nu kerar apamoga vien (or:  apamogavo).  We don't wish to hinder you.
Ci vi kerar lange ajaxa?  Do you wish to answer at length?
Ava kanen esar ava amiken.  To have a dog is to have a friend.

The present tense ends in -ar: mi govrar - I speak.
The past tense ends in -er;  mi govrer - I spoke
The future tense ends in -or: li govror - He will speak
The conditional ends in -ir:  ni govrir - we would speak
The purpose mode/imperative ends in -u: Govru!  Speak!;  Ni govru. - Let's speak.  Mi kerar, ke li govru - I wish that he  would speak.


1.  The present tense is used for the "timeless" sense: mi govrar ispane/ispanen.  I speak Spanish.  This is also the form usually used to denote action that is ongoing at the time of speaking.  If particular emphasis is placed on the fact that the action of the verb is going at the time of speaking,  one can use the present of esa (to be) with the present participle (see #2 below) or the imperfective suffix (see #5 below)

2.  The past participles of a verb end in -enti (active) and -eti (passive):  govra - to speak; govreti - spoken.  govrenti - (having) spoken, as in Sa govrenti covek aidar.  The person who spoke is coming.
The present participles end in -anti (active) and -ati (passive).  Govranti - speaking.  Govrati - being spoken.
Future participles exist in Govro with the meaning of "about to X": govronti; "about to be X'd" govroti.

3.  The so-called "perfect tenses" can be formed in two ways.  The first way, which is used most often with transitive verbs and is more conversational, uses the auxiliary verb "ava" with the past participle.  Mi avar videti - I have seen.  Mi aver kometi - I had eaten.  Ti avor imeti - you will have had.  Ni avir dumeti - We would have thought.

4.  The second method, the only method used with intransitive verbs, is to insert the perfective ending -ek- between the root and the tense ending. No auxiliary verb is used.  Mi videkar - I have seen.  Mi eseker - I had been.    Ti imekor - you will have had.  Ni dumekir - We would have thought.  This form is almost never used on transitive verbs in any but the most formal speech (oratory) or in formulaic phrases:  Kristo alsiveker!  Istine alsiveker!  Christ has risen!  Indeed, He has risen!  However, there are speakers who use this form on all verbs in conversation, both informal and formal.  In practice, the perfect tenses are not in usual use in conversation, the "regular" tenses with adverbs such as "jam" already, and "osne" up till now, being used instead:  Mi osne eser, I have been.  Mi jam komer, kutam li enider.  I had (already) eaten, when he came in.


5.  The suffix -ad can be added between the root and the suffixes -ar, -er, -or, and -u to create an imperfective aspect.  This is primarily used with the past tense to express an "imperfective" aspect, much like the Spanish imperfect, Russian imperfective past, or the Greek continuous past tense.  Without the -ad- suffix, the past is equivalent to the Greek aorist; denoting the idea of completion of the action or else simple reporting of the action happening in the past, as in the Spanish preterit.
Used with the present, this suffix denotes the progressive tense.  The progressive sense can also be given to the verb with the future suffix.  Technically, the -ad- should be added in the infinitive to denote action that is meant as continuous or repetitive (as in Russian or Greek) but only some speakers will do this.  It is never wrong to put in the infix for this continuous/repeated meaning.


Again, a conjugated verb (in a form ending in -ar, -er, -ir, or -or) with no subject pronoun is to be interpreted as a kind of "middle voice", i.e. where, in English we use a nebulous "they":  Kutel to zovar?  What is your name? (literally:  How do they call you?)  Mo zovar ______. My name is (literally, "they call me")  ______.   This is usually to be found only in set phrases.

Lini aladar xe sa patekik.  She lives with the grandfather.
Lui patik esar juni.  Her father is young.
Lui pats eser junis.  Her parents were young.
Ajuni patekin.  An old grandmother.
Ajunis pateks. Old grandparents.
Anu, ni kurer tra sa sidun.  Yes, we ran thru the parlor.
Kuti sidar su atuti sidil?  Who is sitting on this chair?
Ejdene zi pedider.  Yesterday, they walked.

1.  Kuti aladar xe ti?  Xe ni aladar mui tadik ku mui tadin.
2.  Kute esar tui patik kaj tui patin?  Mui pats esar xe mui velin, en luin hus.
3.  Ci mui vels igrar en tui sidun?  Nu, her, tui velik kurar en sa kip kaj tui du velins nu esar xe mi.
4.  Ci tui patks esar ajunis?  Anu, zi esar ajunis.
5.  Kuti sidar en sa sidun?  Mui patin esar atute ku juni herin kaj du ajuni hers.
6.  Ci ti igrer ejdene ku tui vels?  Anu, mi kurer tra sa kip ku mui juni velik kaj igrer en sa sidun ku mui ce velins.
7.  Ci tui tads igrar ku xats?  Anu, en zui hus esar ce xats.
8.  Ci esar xats en tui hus?  Anu, esar du xats, kaj zi kurar tra sa domats, pedidar su sa tavlos
kaj sa sidils.
9.  Ci esar lampos su tui tavlos?  Nu, herin, mui lampos nu esar en sa domats, kute kurar sa xats.
10.  Kuti alader xe tui velik?  Xe mui velik alader mui tads kaj sa her, kuti eser ku ti ejdene.
11.  Ci atuti her esar en mui domat?  Nu, li sidar en sa domat, kuti esar engus ta sidun.
12.  Kuto esar atute?  Atute esar unu tavlo kaj du sidils, kutis esar abonis.
13.  Kuti aladar en atuti jandi hus?  Atute aladar sa hers, kutis eser ku ni ejdene.
14.  Ci tui tadin aladar xe ti?  Nu, lin aladar xe mui patekin ku sa du ajuni herins, kutis sider engus ti en sa sidun.
15.  Kuti sider su sa sidil engus sa tui?  Atute sider juni her, kuti aladar ku mui velik xe nui patekik.
16.  Ci tui velik sidar engus ti xe sa tablo?  Nu, xe sa tavlo mui velik sidar engus mui juni velin.






Sunday, November 22, 2015

Leson ce (3)

Plural
The plural is formed for nouns and ajectives by adding -s (-os for those nouns ending in -s, -c, -x, or -z):  Sa xenis xats.  The beautiful cats.
If the adjective is directly before the noun it modifies, the ending CAN be left off:  Sa xeni xats.  The beautiful cats.  (this is perhaps preferable since -s x- can be difficult to pronounce).
But:  Sa tavlos esar bonis.

Sa xeni domat - the beautiful room
Sa xeni(s) domats - the beautiful rooms
Esar boni lampo - there is a good lamp
ajandi(s) tavlos - small tables
Kuto?  What?
atuto - this
su/isu - on (usually "su" but "isu" when following a word ending in "s, "z", or "x")

1 - unu;  2 - du;  3 - ce.

1.  Kute esar tui domat?  Mui domat esar en sa hus de mui tadik.
2.  Ci sa domat de tui velik esar atute?  Ane, sa du domats esar atute.
3.  Kute esar tuis fratins?  Du fratins esar en mui hus kaj unu igrar ku sa xats de mui tadin.
4.  Kute esar sa ce hers?  Zi esar en sa xenis domats de mui jandi hus.
5.  Kuto esar su sa tavlo?  Su sa tavloesar ce lampos.
6.  Ci zi esar bonis lampos?  Unu esar boni lampo kaj du esar aboni lampos.
7.  Ci tui lampo esar jandi?  Anu, her, mui lampo esar jandi.
8.  Ci sa lampo esar su ti tavlo?  Nu, her, sa lampo esar su sa jandi tavloen tui domat.
9.  Ci tuis domats esar en sa hus de tui tadik?  Nu, her, mis domats esar en sa hus de mui velik.
10.  Kute esar sa xats?  Unu esar atute su tui tavlokaj du esar en mui domat.
11.  Ci sa xats esar su sa tavloku mui lampo?  Nu, mi velik, sa xats nu esar atute, kute esar lampos.
12.  Kuto esar en tui domat?  En mui domat esar du ajandis tavlo.
13.  Ci atuto esar tui kip?  Nu, mui kip nu esar atute; atuto esar sa kip de mui velik kaj sa hus de mui velin.
14.  Ci atuto esar sa hus de tui tadik?  Nu, her, atuto esar mui hus; lui hus esar engus tui kip.
15.  Kuto esar atuto, her?  Atute esar jandi tavlo.
16.  Ci tui velik igrar en sa hus?  Nu, li nu igrar atute, li esar en sa kip ku mui xats.






Friday, November 20, 2015

Leson du (2)

Grammar

Adjectives always end in -i:  boni - good; xeni - beautiful;  Sa jandi xat - The big cat.


Adverbs modify adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs.  Most Govro adverbs have the ending -e and are derived from the same roots as may adjectives and some other words.  (The root of a word is the part which tells its essential meaning and receives the grammatical ending to make it a word.)

Examples of such derived adverbs are ixire - strongly, "with strength"; bone - well; amike - in a friendly way; abone - badly.

Govro has also a number of primary adverbs which have various endings.  Many of these have counterparts (probably quite old) in European languages basic to Govro.  Examples are Ejden(e) - yesterday.  ajden(e) - today, nu - no, not; anu - yes;  nun - now.

Subject pronouns and possessive adjectives



The following are the personal subject pronouns with their meanings.

mi - I
ti - you (singular)
li - he, she, it
ni - we
vi - you (plural)
zi - they
ici - one
ki - it


Myself, yourself, etc. add -mi to the pronoun.  Mi - I,  mimi - myself.
Si is the reflexive pronoun for the third person and means himself, herself, itself, themselves. 
Li govrar a si - He speaks to himself.  Zi eser lubeti de si - they were loved by themselves.

If one is speaking to one person, one MUST use "ti."  There is no nuance of intimacy as in other languages.  "Vi" conversly has no connotation of deference or politeness; it is simply the plural you and cannot be used to one person.

Sentences with an object pronoun but no subject pronoun, can be interpreted as a quasi-passive or middle voice:  Kutel to zovar?  What is your name? (lit: "How does one call you?")  Mo zovar ____.  My name is ____.  (lit: "one calls me _____"). This is mostly restricted to so-called "stock phrases".  Note, these are NOT idioms.  They do make sense translated literally.  They are just particular to Govro.  As with the above, a speaker can use the literal translation:  Kuto esar tui nam?  What is your name?  Mui nam esar ________.  My name is _______.


Possessive adjectives (stress is on the "u")

mui - my, mine, of mine
tui - your, yours, of yours
lui - his, her, its; his, hers, its; of his, of hers, of its
nui - our, ours, of ours
vui - your, yours, of yours
zui - their, theirs, of theirs
kui - its
icui - one's

Sui - his own, her own, its own, their own, is used with a complement belonging to the subject of the sentence/clause.  Mui patik pedidar ku sui amik kaj lui josik.  My father walks with his (own) friend and his (the friend's) son.

Ci tui hus esar jandi?  Is your house large?
Sa her kaj sa herin.  The gentleman and the lady.
Zi cezar en mui kip.  They are playing in my garden.
Sa xat de sa tadik  The uncle's cat (lit: the cat of the uncle)
Mi nu esar engus lui hus.  I am not near his house.

1.  Ci tui kip esar jandi?  Anu, mui kip esar jandi.
2.  Kute esar sa hus de tui velik?  Sa hus de mui velik esar engus mui kip.
3.  Ci tui velik esar ku ti?  Nu, li esar ku mui velin.
4.  Ci tui tadik kaj tui tadin esar atute?  Nu zi nu esar atute.
5.  Kute zi esar?  Zi esar en tui hus.
6.  Kute esar tui kip?  Mui kip esar engus tui hus.
7.  Ci ti cezar ku sa xat de tui tadik?  Nu, mi nu cezar ku lui xat, mi cezar ku mui xat.
8.  Kuti esar tui velin?  Mui velin esar ku mui tadik en tui kip.
9.  Ci tui velik esar ku sa tadin?  Nu, li esar ku sa her kaj sa herin en mui hus.
10.  Kute esar tui hus?  Mui hus esar en sa jandi kip de mui tadik.
11.  Kute esar sa kip de tui tadik?  Lui kip esar engus ta jandi hus de tui velik.
12.  Ci li esar tui velik?  Anu, li esar mui velik kaj sa her esar mui tadik.
13.  Kute cezar tui velik?   Mui velik cezar atute en mui kip.
14.  Ci li cezar ku ti?  Nu, li nu cezar ku mi; li cezar ku mui tadin.
15.  Kute esar tui xat?  Mui xat esar ku sa xatin de mui tadik.
16.  Kute esar sa her?  Li esar ku mui velik en sa kip de mui tadik.
17.  Kite ti cezar ku tui xatin?  Mi cezar en mui jandi kip.
18.  Ci tui xatin esar jandi?  Nu, mui xatin nu esar jandi.
19.  Ci ti nu cezar ku tui xat?  Anu, mi cezar ku mui jandi xat.
20.  Ci tui tadik kaj tui velik esar atute?  Nu, her, zi nu esar atute, zi esar en mui kip.
21.  Kute esar tui tadin kaj sa her?  Li esar en tui hus.
22.  Kute esar tui velik?  Li sar ku zi en sa jandi hus engus tui kip.
23.  Kute esar sa her?  Li esar en sa kip, kute mui velin cezar ku lui xat.
24.  Ci sa kip esar engus ta hus, kute esar tui tadik?  Nu, lui kip esar engus mui hus.


Leson unu (1)

Kajxo a xutus kaj bonaido!  (KYE-show ah SHOE-toose kye bone-ah-EE-doh) Hello to all, and welcome!


Govro is a new language project, designed specifically to address certain problems of other constructed, so-called "international languages" a few of which are:
1.      The "clinical regularity" of most other projects.
2.      The preponderence of Romance root words in the basic vocabulary seen in other languages.
3.      Unnecessarily difficult phonotactics (overly complex consonant clusters, basically)
4.      Slavish imitation of many languages using plural you for "polite" discourse and singular you for "familiar" or else English and Esperanto for using one word for both singular and plural
5.      Alleged sexism.

One intended use of Govro is as the official or bridge language for the European Union.  Not that that august body's government will ever approve such a proposal (it poo-poo's Esperanto, after all), but a language that will give a not-so-Romance option to Europe's non-Romance-speaking population who (rightly) berate Esperanto for being "A romance language with a germano-slavic accent".

Govro is unapologetically Indo-European in character and vocabulary (in other words, a so-called "Euroclone" in that it strongly resembles  "Standard Average European" in nature), that is, most of its features are found in one or more Indo-European languages, mainly Romance, Germanic, or Slavic,  although there are elements from other Indo-European languages (e.g. the verb aspects are more like the Greek system than the Slavic system) as well as non-Indo-European languages, and a priori elements that have been incorporated into it. 

For the purposes of this blog, I will be shamelessly imitating the format of Edmond Privat's "Esperanto in 50 Lessons".  Esperantists who read this blog will also note that I have shamelessly borrowed a few of Dr. Zamenhof's very good ideas e.g.  the correlative words (although I did make some tweaks for the Govro version) and his participle system, although in Govro, participles are ONLY adjectival or adverbial (none of the -anto, -into, or -onto complications, or worse yet, the "-intus" monstrosity).



The vowels of Govro are the usual 5 vowel set common to many languages: a, e, i, o, u.   These are given the usual pronunciation found in Spanish, Italian, Swahili, Hebrew, etc.  Of particular note, the "e" and "o" can be pronounced either close or open.  The two pronunciations are mere allophones of the one phoneme. 

The consonants are as follows:

B, D, F, K, L, M, N, P, T, V, W, and Z are basically as in English beet, dill, fennel, kale, lens, mango, nut, pepper, tomato, vanilla, wow (both times; see below), and zucchini.

C as the CH in church
G as in go
H silent at the end of a word, as English "h" or German "ch" in "ach" and "ich" otherwise.
J as in German "ja", see below.  Before "i", it usually gets pronounced somewhere between English "zh" and "j".
R is trilled either with the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge or the back of the tongue against the uvula (or more precisely, the uvula is vibrated against the back of the tongue).
S as in see
X as the "sh" in "shore".  

"J" is used immediately after the vowels "a" and "o" to create the sound combinations that in other languages are termed "diphthongs", just a fancy word for two vowels, one strong and one weak, pronounced as one syllable. "aj" is pronounced as the English word "eye" and "oj" is pronounced as the "oy" in "boy."
"J" before a vowel is equivalent to the English "Y"; "ja" sounds like the "-ia" (with the proper "a" sound) in "Alleluia", etc.

"W" is used after "a" for the diphthong found in "ouch" and before "a", "e", and "i" as in the English words, water, west and week.

Voiced consonants at the end of words MAY  be pronounced as their unvoiced counterparts.

It will be seen on perusal of the vocabulary that consonant clusters are restricted to two consonants within words and also at the beginning when the second consonant is one of the semivowels, W or J.  The only cluster allowed on the end of a word comes from the plural suffix, -s,  being attached to a noun ending in a consonant.

Finally, stress in the base form (the form found in dictionaries) of words of more than one syllable is on the vowel before the last consonant of the word.  
In words beginning with a consonant followed by vowels only, the stress is on the second to last vowel: liu = LEE-oo.  Lui = LOO-ee.  
Stress will NOT shift to the final vowel when adding the accusative -en or the plural -s.  When adding BOTH suffixes (i.e. in plural accusative nouns and adjectives), the stress DOES shift to the vowel before the -s (-o in nouns: govrOsen; and -i in adjectives: abonIsen) In all other cases, the stress will shift to the final pre-consonant vowel



Grammar overview
Words of more than one syllable are "grammar coded" to an extent.  Verb infinitives end in -a, adjectives end in -i, and nouns end in a consonant or -o.  Adverbs end in either -e or else a consonant.

Nouns
Base nouns (those nouns not derived from another part of speech) in Govro end in a consonant as in den, day; infan, child; covek, person; or in an -o  after a consonant cluster as in tavlo, table.  

Nouns derive from other parts of speech by changing the ending vowel of the verb to -o and dropping the -i of the adjective (adding an -o if this results in a consonant cluster at the end of the word). Hence:  Govra - to speak; govro - speech, language.  Boni - good; bon - the good.  An -o CAN be added to a noun for euphony.  

There is no grammatical gender in Govro.  Even the third person subject pronoun is gender neutral, although should the need arise, a speaker can differentiate between "he" and "she" (usually "lici" for "he" and "lini" for "she").


There is only one article in Govro:  sa (turns to 'ta" after a word ending in an "s") - the.  This does not change for number or case.  The change in the article from s- to t- will be observed any time two S's come together during morphological processes, unless, of course, this creates a cluster of more than two consonants (in the same word), in which case the second "s" simply drops out.


"Ci"
The particle "ci" is used to create yes/no questions from statements by simply placing it before the sentence. 
It is also used to create "tag questions": Ti esar ispano, ci nu?  You are a spaniard, aren't you?
Ti nu govrar dojces, ci?  You don't speak german, right?

Vocabulary  (Note that in the first 4 lessons of each 5-lesson group, only the new words in the sentences in bold print are to be memorized as active vocabulary.  Of course, the student can memorize the new words in the grammar explanations if s/he wishes, but it is not required; don't worry though; they'll be introduced as active vocabulary eventually.  In the 5th lesson of each 5-lesson group, all new words given are to be memorized.)

Kute esar sa velik?  Where is the brother?
En sa hus ku sa velin.   In the house with the sister.
Ci li esar atute?  Is he there?
Ci ti esar?    Are you?
Ci mi esar?   Am I?
Anu   Yes
Nu      No.

1.  Kute esar sa velik?  Li esar en sa hus.
2.  Kute esar sa velin?  Sa velin esar en sa hus.
3.  Kute esar sa hus?  Sa hus esar atute.
4.  Ci sa hus esar kine?  Anu, sa hus esar atute.
5.  Ci sa velik esar en sa hus?  Anu, sa velik esar en sa hus.
6.  Ci li esar atute?  Anu, li esar atute.
7.  Ci li esar ku sa velin?  Anu, sa velik esar ku sa velin en sa hus.
8.  Ci sa velik esar ku ti?  Nu, li esar ku sa velin.
9.  Ci li esar atute?  Nu, li esar en sa hus.
10. Ci sa velin esar en sa hus?  Anu, sa velin esar en sa hus ku mi.
11. Ci ti esar ku mi?  Nu, mi esar ku sa velik.
12. Ci mi esar ku sa velin?  Nu, ti esar ku mi.
13. Kute ti esar?  Mi esar atute ku li.
14.  Ci sa velin esar ku sa velik?  Anu, sa velin esar ku li.
15. Kute ti esar?  Mi esar atute ku li.
16. Kute esar sa velin?  Sa velin esar atute, kute sa velik esar.
17. Kute ti esar?  Mi esar kine ku sa velik.
18. Kute li esar?  Li esar en sa hus, kute mi esar.
19. Kute esar sa velik?  Sa velik esar atute, kute ti esar.
20.  Ci sa velin esar ku li?  Anu, kute esar sa velik, kine esar sa velin.