The infinitive of verbs. The infinitive expressess a state or an action without reference to persons or time. It can be subject, object, or predicate of a verb, yet it can have a direct object. It is modified by adverbs. In Govro, the infinitive ends in "-a". Govra - to speak; beba - to drink;
Ni nu kerar apamoga vien (or: apamogavo). We don't wish to hinder you.
Ci vi kerar lange ajaxa? Do you wish to answer at length?
Ava kanen esar ava amiken. To have a dog is to have a friend.
The present tense ends in -ar: mi govrar - I speak.
The past tense ends in -er; mi govrer - I spoke
The future tense ends in -or: li govror - He will speak
The conditional ends in -ir: ni govrir - we would speak
The purpose mode/imperative ends in -u: Govru! Speak!; Ni govru. - Let's speak. Mi kerar, ke li govru - I wish that he would speak.
1. The present tense is used for the "timeless" sense: mi govrar ispane/ispanen. I speak Spanish. This is also the form usually used to denote action that is ongoing at the time of speaking. If particular emphasis is placed on the fact that the action of the verb is going at the time of speaking, one can use the present of esa (to be) with the present participle (see #2 below) or the imperfective suffix (see #5 below)
2. The past participles of a verb end in -enti (active) and -eti (passive): govra - to speak; govreti - spoken. govrenti - (having) spoken, as in Sa govrenti covek aidar. The person who spoke is coming.
The present participles end in -anti (active) and -ati (passive). Govranti - speaking. Govrati - being spoken.
Future participles exist in Govro with the meaning of "about to X": govronti; "about to be X'd" govroti.
3. The so-called "perfect tenses" can be formed in two ways. The first way, which is used most often with transitive verbs and is more conversational, uses the auxiliary verb "ava" with the past participle. Mi avar videti - I have seen. Mi aver kometi - I had eaten. Ti avor imeti - you will have had. Ni avir dumeti - We would have thought.
4. The second method, the only method used with intransitive verbs, is to insert the perfective ending -ek- between the root and the tense ending. No auxiliary verb is used. Mi videkar - I have seen. Mi eseker - I had been. Ti imekor - you will have had. Ni dumekir - We would have thought. This form is almost never used on transitive verbs in any but the most formal speech (oratory) or in formulaic phrases: Kristo alsiveker! Istine alsiveker! Christ has risen! Indeed, He has risen! However, there are speakers who use this form on all verbs in conversation, both informal and formal. In practice, the perfect tenses are not in usual use in conversation, the "regular" tenses with adverbs such as "jam" already, and "osne" up till now, being used instead: Mi osne eser, I have been. Mi jam komer, kutam li enider. I had (already) eaten, when he came in.
5. The suffix -ad can be added between the root and the suffixes -ar, -er, -or, and -u to create an imperfective aspect. This is primarily used with the past tense to express an "imperfective" aspect, much like the Spanish imperfect, Russian imperfective past, or the Greek continuous past tense. Without the -ad- suffix, the past is equivalent to the Greek aorist; denoting the idea of completion of the action or else simple reporting of the action happening in the past, as in the Spanish preterit.
Used with the present, this suffix denotes the progressive tense. The progressive sense can also be given to the verb with the future suffix. Technically, the -ad- should be added in the infinitive to denote action that is meant as continuous or repetitive (as in Russian or Greek) but only some speakers will do this. It is never wrong to put in the infix for this continuous/repeated meaning.
Again, a conjugated verb (in a form ending in -ar, -er, -ir, or -or) with no subject pronoun is to be interpreted as a kind of "middle voice", i.e. where, in English we use a nebulous "they": Kutel to zovar? What is your name? (literally: How do they call you?) Mo zovar ______. My name is (literally, "they call me") ______. This is usually to be found only in set phrases.
Lini aladar xe sa patekik. She lives with the grandfather.
Lui patik esar juni. Her father is young.
Lui pats eser junis. Her parents were young.
Ajuni patekin. An old grandmother.
Ajunis pateks. Old grandparents.
Anu, ni kurer tra sa sidun. Yes, we ran thru the parlor.
Kuti sidar su atuti sidil? Who is sitting on this chair?
Ejdene zi pedider. Yesterday, they walked.
1. Kuti aladar xe ti? Xe ni aladar mui tadik ku mui tadin.
2. Kute esar tui patik kaj tui patin? Mui pats esar xe mui velin, en luin hus.
3. Ci mui vels igrar en tui sidun? Nu, her, tui velik kurar en sa kip kaj tui du velins nu esar xe mi.
4. Ci tui patks esar ajunis? Anu, zi esar ajunis.
5. Kuti sidar en sa sidun? Mui patin esar atute ku juni herin kaj du ajuni hers.
6. Ci ti igrer ejdene ku tui vels? Anu, mi kurer tra sa kip ku mui juni velik kaj igrer en sa sidun ku mui ce velins.
7. Ci tui tads igrar ku xats? Anu, en zui hus esar ce xats.
8. Ci esar xats en tui hus? Anu, esar du xats, kaj zi kurar tra sa domats, pedidar su sa tavlos
kaj sa sidils.
9. Ci esar lampos su tui tavlos? Nu, herin, mui lampos nu esar en sa domats, kute kurar sa xats.
10. Kuti alader xe tui velik? Xe mui velik alader mui tads kaj sa her, kuti eser ku ti ejdene.
11. Ci atuti her esar en mui domat? Nu, li sidar en sa domat, kuti esar engus ta sidun.
12. Kuto esar atute? Atute esar unu tavlo kaj du sidils, kutis esar abonis.
13. Kuti aladar en atuti jandi hus? Atute aladar sa hers, kutis eser ku ni ejdene.
14. Ci tui tadin aladar xe ti? Nu, lin aladar xe mui patekin ku sa du ajuni herins, kutis sider engus ti en sa sidun.
15. Kuti sider su sa sidil engus sa tui? Atute sider juni her, kuti aladar ku mui velik xe nui patekik.
16. Ci tui velik sidar engus ti xe sa tablo? Nu, xe sa tavlo mui velik sidar engus mui juni velin.